Due to the continued threat of COVID-19, Archbold is closed to the public. Please check back for news on reopening.

Richard Archbold

Richard Archbold (1907-1976), Explorer and Patron of Science

CURRICULUM VITAE

born: April 9, 1907, New York, New York.
died: August 1, 1976, Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida. nterment at the family mausoleum in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, New York.
parents: John Foster Archbold. b: May 10, 1877, New York, New York. d. January 7, 1930, Thomasville, Georgia. May Barron Archbold. b: February 25, 1872. d. December 11, 1939, New York, New York.
siblings: Adrian Archbold (1909-1974), Frances Archbold Hufty (1912).

Education

  • Plunkett’s School for Boys, Thomasville, Georgia, K-G6.
  • private tutors at home, Thomasville, Georgia
  • Stuyvesant School,  Warrenton, Virginia. -- (Recitation Hall)
  • St Mark’s School, Southborough, Massachusetts, 2 years, 1920-1921, age 13-14.
  • Evans School, Tanque Verde, Arizona, 3 years, 1922-1925, age 15-17.
  • Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, 1928, courses in geology, chemistry, and mathematics.
  • Columbia University, New York City, 1931 (spring semester), study comparative anatomy.
  • Independent study; visit natural history museums in Europe to study mammals of Celebes, Madagascar, and New Guinea, summer 1931.

Memberships - Science, Exploration, and Conservation

  • 1929. American Society of Mammalogists, Life Member, March 1, 1929.
  • 1929. Explorer’s Club, elected to membership, March 12, 1929.
  • 1930. American Ornithologists’ Union.
  • 1930. Deutschen Geselleshaft fur Saugertierkunde (German Mammalogists’ Society).
  • 1931. National Association of Audubon Societies, Life Member, January 21, 1931.
  • 1932. American Geographical Society, Fellow, November 22, 1932.
  • 1932. Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences.
  • 1930s. American Alpine Club.
  • 1930s. Linnaean Society of New York.
  • 1956. Florida State Museum Council, 1956-1967
  • 1960. American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, appointed a Fellow, Dec. 1, 1960.
  • 1961. Australian Mammal Society, elected to membership.

also;

  • American Institute of Biological Sciences.
  • American Society of Naturalists.
  • Ecological Society of America.
  • Florida Academy of Sciences.
  • Florida Audubon Society.
  • New York Academy of Sciences.

Memberships - Public Service Organizations in Georgia and Florida

  • 1931. John D. Archbold Memorial Hospital, Thomasville, Georgia, Trustee.
  • 1943. U.S. Army Air Forces, Aircraft Warning Service, Certificate of Honorable Service, December 17, 1943.
  • 1945. Glades Electric Cooperative, Inc.: charter member January 1945; Director 1945-1946; the first Vice-President  July 5, 1945-January 30, 1947; President January 30, 1947-January 26, 1956; Vice-President January 26, 1956-1976. Awards: 25-year award, March 26, 1971.
  • 1945. Florida Rural Electric Cooperative: Director, 1945-1975. Awards:10-year service award, 1955; 25-year Director service award, December 1970; 30-year Director service award, December 4, 1975.
  • 1950s. Highlands County Civil Defense Unit, long-time member.
  • 1950s. Federal Civil Defense Administration, Florida State Civil Defense, & Dade County Civil Defense Council: Federal Civil Defense Staff College Administration Course for Leaders in Civil Defense.
  • 1950. Donated clock and scoreboard for the new Lake Placid High School Gymnasium.
  • 1953. American National Red Cross, Highlands County Chapter: Board of Directors, Chairman (2 yrs.), member (9 yrs.), 1953-1962.
  • 1956. Highlands Hammock State Park Advisory Board, Secretary 1956-1966. “The HHSP AB was the most active and hard-working AB in the state.” Comment to Alexander Blair, Chairman of the AB, from a Tallahassee official.
  • 1957. Lake Placid, Florida, Lions Club: founding member; Vice-President 1957-1958; President 1958-1959; Boy Scout Chairman, Lake Placid Boy Scout Troop #162, 1956; Boys & Girls Committee chairman 1957-1958. Awards: 10-year Charter Monarch Award from the International Association of Lions Clubs.

Publications

  • Archbold, R. 1930. Bevato, a camp in Madagascar. Natural History 30:645-652.
  • Archbold, R. 1932. A new lemur from Madagascar. American Museum Novitates 518, 1 p. link
  • Archbold, R., L.J. Brass, and R.V. Oldham. 1934. Camera impressions of New Guinea. Natural History 34:447-457.
  • Archbold, R. and A.L. Rand. 1935. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 7. Summary of the 1933-1934 Papuan Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 68:527-579. link
  • Archbold, R. and G.H.H. Tate. 1935. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 1. A new genus and species of squirrel from Celebes. American Museum Novitates 801, 6 pp. link
  • Tate, G.H.H. and R. Archbold. 1935. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 2. Twelve apparently new forms of Rattus from the Indo-Australian region. American Museum Novitates 802, 10 pp. link
  • Tate, G.H.H. and R. Archbold. 1935. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 3. Twelve apparently new forms of Muridae (other than Rattus) from the Indo-Australian region. American Museum Novitates 803, 9 pp. link
  • Tate, G.H.H. and R. Archbold. 1935. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 4. An apparently new race of wallabies from southern new Guinea. American Museum Novitates 804, 2 pp. link
  • Tate, G.H.H. and R. Archbold. 1935. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 5. Seven apparently new forms of Phalangeridae from the New Guinea region. American Museum Novitates 810, 8 pp. link
  • Archbold, R. 1936. An ascent of Mt. Albert Edwards. American Alpine Journal 2: 449-454.
  • Tate, G.H.H. and R. Archbold. 1936. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 8. Four apparently new polyprodont marsupials from new Guinea. American Museum Novitates 823, 4 pp. link
  • Tate, G.H.H. and R. Archbold. 1936. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 9. A new race of Hyosciurus. American Museum Novitates 846, 1 p. link
  • Archbold, R. and A.L. Rand. 1937. With plane and radio in stone age New Guinea. Natural History 40:567-576.
  • Tate, G.H.H. and R. Archbold. 1937. Results of the Archbold Expeditions No. 16. Some marsupials of New Guinea and Celebes. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 73:331-476. link
  • Tate, G.H.H. and R. Archbold. 1938. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 18. Two new Muridae from the western division of New Guinea. American Museum Novitates 982, 2 pp. link
  • Tate, G.H.H. and R. Archbold. 1939. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 23. A revision of the genus Emballonura (Chiroptera). American Museum Novitates 1035, 14 pp. link
  • Tate, G.H.H. and R. Archbold. 1939. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 24. Oriental Rhinolophus, with special reference to material from the Archbold collections. American Museum Novitates 1036, 12 pp. link
  • Archbold, R. 1940. Flight to the stone age. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences 2:95-98.
  • Archbold, R. and A.L. Rand. 1940. New Guinea Expedition, Fly River area, 1936-1937. New York, R.M. McBride and Company, 206 pp.
  • Archbold, R. 1941. Unknown New Guinea. National Geographic 79:315-344. link
  • Archbold, R. and A.L. Rand. 1941. Latch key to a savage tribe. Natural History 46:193-199.
  • Tate, G.H.H. and R. Archbold. 1941. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 31. New rodents and marsupials from New Guinea. American Museum Novitates 1101, 9 pp. link
  • Archbold, R., A.L. Rand, and L.J. Brass. 1942. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 41. Summary of the 1938-1939 New Guinea Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 79:197-288. link

Awards

  • 1940. National Aeronautic Association, Certificate of Award, May 1, 1940. “To Richard Archbold and the crew of Consolidated Flying Boat “Guba” for completion of their successful research expedition and flight around the world at its maximum diameter, via San Diego, California, Hawaii, Wake Island, New Guinea, Australia, Africa, Virgin Islands, New York, with return to San Diego, during 1938 and 1939. Other outstanding performances during the expedition include a non-stop flight across Australia and spanning of the Indian Ocean.”
  • 1940. National Aeronautic Association, San Diego Aeronautic Club Chapter, A silver trophy awarded in May 1940. “To Richard Archbold and crew of Consolidated Flying Boat Guba in appreciation of their aerial history making expedition around the world during 1938 and 1939.”
  • 1940. The Netherlands Government, Order of the Orange Nassau, June 22, 1940.  “In recognition of the accomplishments of his scientific expedition to Netherlands New Guinea during 1938-39, where he achieved results of untold benefit to science and to the Netherlands.”
  • 1969. American Museum of Natural History Trustees, Centennial Commemorative Medal for Distinguished Service, December 30, 1969 (see American Museum below). “In recognition of Richard Archbold’s faithful service to the Museum and for his contributions to science.”
  • 1974. Florida Conservation Council, Conservation Achievement Award, A framed painting (reproduction) by Donald R. Eckelberry of a pair of Fulvous Whistling-Ducks awarded on April 6, 1974. “For a lifetime of work in conservation and for his great help to other scientists.”

Species Named for Richard Archbold in Honor of his Support for Science

plants, n = 44 : mosses - 5, & flowering plants - 39. These are all from New Guinea. (Click here for the list)

animals, n = 40: cladocera - 1, spiders - 3, insects - 26, fishes - 1, amphibians - 1, birds - 7, & mammals - 1. Eight insects are from New Guinea, but all the other invertebrates are from Florida. All the vertebrates are from either Madagascar (1), New Guinea (8), or Celebes (1). (Click here for the list)

EXPLORER

Field Work in Biological Exploration and Conservation

Overseas

  • 1929-1930. French-Anglo-American Zoological Expedition to Madagascar, expedition photographer and assistant in mammalogy (April 1929-June 1930).
  • 1933-1934. First Archbold Expedition to New Guinea, expedition leader.
  • 1936-1937. Second Archbold Expedition to New Guinea, expedition leader.
  • 1938-1939. Third Archbold Expedition to New Guinea, expedition leader.
  • Georgia, Arizona, and Florida
  • 1930. Collect mammals in southern Georgia (fall).
  • 1940. Archbold Expedition to southeastern Arizona, expedition leader (January-June 1940).
  • 1945-1954. Explore region of Corkscrew Swamp, southwestern Florida, with Leonard J. Brass, and collaborate with the Corkscrew Cypress Rookery Association and The Nature Conservancy in actions which led to the creation of the Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary of the National Audubon Society in 1954.
  • 1945-1965. Assist numerous visiting scientists visiting Archbold Biological Station, in the field, and in the laboratory, at the Station, and in the surrounding region.
  • 1945-1950. Assist Frank A. Hartman; conduct several trips in southern and southwestern Florida, especially in coastal regions, to collect birds for anatomical studies.
  • 1956-1961. Collaborate with Karl V. Krombein; collect trap nests for solitary, wood-nesting wasps at Archbold Biological Station.

Mountaineering

Europe

1928 (summer). Travel to Europe and conduct many solo (with a guide) climbs: scale all the important and difficult peaks (35 major summits) in three districts of the Alps; Monte Rosa (Pennine Alps of Italy and Switzerland including the Matterhorn), Bernese Oberland (Bern, Switzerland), and Mont Blanc (Graian Alps between Italy, France, and Switzerland).

New Guinea

1933. Climb Mt. Albert Edward (3980 m, 13,057 ft), in southeastern New Guinea (now in the Central Province of Papua New Guinea), during the first Archbold Expedition to New Guinea.

1938. Attempt ascent of Mt. Wilhelmina (4750 m, 15,583 ft), in western New Guinea, during the third Archbold Expedition to New Guinea; reach 4250 m but bad weather prevents further ascent. (Mt. Wilhelmina now called Puncak Trikora, in the Papuan Province - formerly Irian Jaya - of Indonesia.)

Aviation

  • 1932-1941. Hold a pilot’s license, as a Private Operator, and log more than 1,000 hours of flying time.
  • Richard Archbold owned several airplanes (listed in chronological order), including: a Beechcraft (model not known); Fairchild High-Speed Amphibian A-942-B, “Kono,” used in the second Archbold Expedition to New Guinea; Ryan Commuter; Catalina PBY-1 flying boat, “Guba,” used in the third Archbold Expedition to New Guinea; a Fleetwings Seabird, a single-engine seaplane (November 1939); and his last airplane, a Grumman Widgeon G-44, a light amphibian (sold September 1941). Possibly there were others.
  • Firsts in “Guba” (NC777), a Catalina PBY flying boat (a U.S. Navy patrol bomber), Consolidate Aircraft Co., San Diego, California
  • 1937. In Guba 1, complete the first trans-continental flight by a seaplane (San Diego to New York City, 24-25 June 1937) and in Guba 2, repeat the flight but San Diego to Miami, February 1938.
  • 1938. In Guba 2, land and take off from Lake Habbema, Netherlands New Guinea, 3225 m (10,580 ft) first during July 1938. This is the highest elevation that a seaplane lifted off from. (Lake Habbema is now in the Papuan Province - formerly Irian Jaya - of Indonesia.)
  • 1938-1939. In Guba 2, complete the first flight around the world at its widest diameter, approximately at the equator, 1938-1939. This flight includes 3 firsts; a) the first flight across Australia by a seaplane, b) the first flight across the Indian Ocean by any airplane, and c) the first flight across equatorial Africa by a seaplane.

Legs of the round-the-world flight include:

  • San Diego - New Guinea, June 3, 1938-June 10, 1938.
  • New Guinea - Sidney, Australia, May 30, 1939-June 1, 1939.
  • trans-Australia flight, Sidney - Port Hedland, June 3, 1939-June 4, 1939.
  • island hopping across the Indian Ocean to Mombassa, June 4, 1939-June 17, 1939 (This was an official survey flight across the Indian Ocean for the Australian government).
  • Mombassa to Dakar, West Africa, June 27, 1939.
  • Dakar, West Africa - St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, June 29, 1939-July 1, 1939.
  • St. Thomas - New York City, July 1, 1939.
  • NYC - San Diego.

Richard Archbold was the first, and only, civilian to own a PBY flying boat (Guba 1, 1937; but sold to the Russian government as a rescue plane for lost Russian Arctic explorers and Guba 2, 1937-1939; sold to the British Government in September, 1940, for wartime use in the Royal Air Force Coastal Command).

Archbold-Hagner Instrument Laboratory at Archbold Biological Station

1941-1942. Develop various instruments such as “Series IV, No.8 Sextant,” and work with a manufacturer (Frederick Hayes Hagner, San Antonio, Texas) to adapt this sextant, the Hagner Sextant for aviators, to the U.S. Navy’s use.

PATRON OF SCIENCE

Archbold Expeditions (formerly Biological Expeditions), a Nonprofit Corporation Richard Archbold was the founder and president of Biological Explorations and Archbold Expeditions (1937-1976).

organization

  • 1937. Founded Biological Explorations, a nonprofit corporation, in Philadelphia under the laws of Pennsylvania (March 12, 1937). Purposes: “To finance ... and conduct scientific expeditions, ... making biological, ethnological, geological and geographic investigation of ... little known regions; ... for the purpose of advancing ... and improving ... the biological, ethnological, geological and geographical knowledge and information now available relating to said regions.”
  • 1940. The corporation’s name changes to Archbold Expeditions, a nonprofit corporation under the laws of Pennsylvania (July 11, 1940). Directors: Richard Archbold, President; Archbold Van Buren, Vice-President; Adrian Archbold, Secretary and Treasurer; D.J. Daverin, Assistant Secretary and Treasurer; H.E. Anthony.1941. Archbold Expeditions authorization to operate in Florida (March 20, 1941).
  • 1941. Archbold Expeditions receives the Red Hill Estate, 1,058 acres of pristine woodland and several substantial buildings, a gift from the owner and builder, John A. Roebling II (July 28, 1941).
  • 1976. Frances Archbold Hufty becomes president of Archbold Expeditions after her brother’s death in 1976.
  • 1981. Archbold Expeditions ends support for staff at American Museum of Natural History’s Department of Mammalogy to focus solely on the Archbold Biological Station in Lake Placid, Florida.

Archbold Expeditions to New Guinea (7) and Australia (1), 1933-1964

accomplishments

The first three Archbold Expeditions to New Guinea were notable for their geographic scope, meticulous preparation, and support by airplanes on the second and third expeditions. The Archbold Expeditions after World War II were less ambitious in scope and did not use airplanes. Nonetheless, the combined results of the seven Archbold Expeditions to New Guinea, and one to northern Australia, were remarkable for the great number of specimens of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates they collected, and for the detailed ecological and geographical information, and photographs, that accompanied the specimens. These collections included many new species in almost all taxa collected.

In 2000, 67 years after the first Archbold Expedition, Richard Zweifel (Zweifel 2000) remarked on the value of the expeditions to science in his description of a new species of New Guinea frog, Austrochaparina archboldi. “The patronymic honors Richard Archbold, sponsor and early leader of a series of seven expeditions to New Guinea (1933-1964) that contributed immeasurably to knowledge of the biota of that island. Profitable mining of the collections for material of value to systematic biology will doubtless continue for decades.”

publications

Collections and activities of the Archbold Expeditions to New Guinea and Australia contributed entirely, or substantially, to 124 publications in botany, 61 about invertebrates, and 73 about vertebrates. The numbered results of the Archbold Expeditions were published as follows:

  • Zoological Results of the Archbold Expeditions, no. 1-84, 1935-1963; all by the American Museum of Natural History.
  • Botanical Results of the Archbold Expeditions, no. 1-58, 1933-1952; all either by the New York Botanical Gardens or by the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University.

discoveries in anthropology and geography during the third New Guinea Expedition

The Balim Valley. On June 23, 1938, during a reconnaissance flight in Guba between the coast and alpine Lake Habbema, Richard Archbold discovered the Balim Valley (5,000 - 5,500 feet), Netherlands New Guinea (Irian Jaya, now Papua Province of Indonesia), where 60,000 stone-age natives were living in an unknown valley of the Balim River (on the north slope of the Snow Mountains), and not far from alpine Lake Habbema (site of an expedition base camp).

Archbold Lake. During the third New Guinea expedition, on the same reconnaissance flight (June 23, 1938) that resulted in the discovery of the Balim Valley, Richard Archbold found a lake 50 km northeast of Lake Habbema, at 700 m in the valley of the Wal or Hablifoeri River. In July 1938, Guba landed on this lake, Kadie Meer (2/3 of a mile long and a ½ mile wide), and established a camp site for the land route between Lake Habbema and the Balim Valley. This lake was named “Archbold Meer” (Archbold Lake) by the Netherlands Indies Government during October 1940

Archbold Expedition to Arizona, January-June, 1940

The Archbold Expedition to the Rincon Mountains, near Tucson, Arizona, went to “discover facts, rather than things,” after the planned fourth expedition to New Guinea was canceled because of the war in the Pacific. The focus of the Arizona Expedition was on bird and mammal ecology and behavior. The expedition also gathered material for two exhibits in the American Museum of Natural History’s Hall of North American Mammals and obtained color photographs of nocturnal mammals. The expedition produced 4 publications about birds, 2 about mammals, and 2 about the expedition.

American Museum of Natural History, New York City

appointments

  • 1931-1976. Research Associate, Department of Mammalogy, November 24, 1931.
  • 1931. Patron, March 19, 1931.
  • 1932. Associate Benefactor, May 2, 1932.
  • 1933. Associate Founder, July 13, 1933.
  • 1935. Benefactor, May 6, 1935 (see Awards 1969, above).

support

  • 1945-1981. Archbold Expeditions Office, Department of Mammalogy; 1 Archbold Expeditions Curator of Mammals and 1 secretary.

donations

  • 1930-1931. Rare and valuable books and periodicals to the Museum’s library.
  • 1932. Small mammal specimens (n=66) from Lower Volga River, Russia.
  • 1931. Many small mammal specimens; Gerd Heinrich collection from Celebes.
  • ca. 1935. Many small mammal specimens; J.J. Menden collections from Java and Sumatra.
  • 1934-1981. The vertebrate specimens, records, and photographs from Archbold Expeditions New Guinea/Australia were donated to the American Museum. (The plant specimens were donated to the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, and to several other major collections).

exhibits sponsored

  • Whitney Hall of Oceanic Birds - 1
  • Snow Mountains of New Guinea.
  • Hall of North American Mammals - 4
  • Black Bear - Big Cypress Swamp, southwestern Florida.
  • Black-tailed Jack Rabbit - Rancho Tanque Verde, Tucson, Arizona.
  • Cottontail Rabbit - New York State.
  • Spotted Skunk and Cacomistle - Ship Rock, New Mexico.

Richard Archbold was a major benefactor of the American Museum of Natural History where he was a Research Associate (1931-1976) of the Department of Mammalogy. As a Research Associate, he founded Archbold Expeditions, based at the museum, and he funded, organized, and conducted 3 biological expeditions to New Guinea during 1933-1939 and one to southeastern Arizona in 1940. After the Second World War, he substantially funded 4 more expeditions (1953, 1956, 1959, 1964) to New Guinea and one (1948) to Cape York, Australia, through Archbold Expeditions, and at his death in 1976 he was supporting a 3-year field study of mammals of Celebes by Guy Musser, the museum’s Archbold Expeditions Curator of Mammals.

Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida

  • 1941. Founded Archbold Biological Station
  • Begin (February 1941) the work of converting the Roebling Red Hill Estate to a biological research station; by adding a dining room, animal rooms, and additional garage space; and by converting units in the Roebling storehouse for a library, office and laboratory space, a photography darkroom, and a projection booth.
  • Formal transfer of property from John A. Roebling II to Archbold Expeditions occurs July 28, 1941.
  • Dr. Austin L. Rand becomes first Director of Research (September 1941- February 1942).
  • 1941-1976. Resident Director for 35.5 years
  • Work continually to establish and improve scientific facilities of the Station.
  • Support all visiting scientists by maintaining living accommodations and food service from personal funds (1941-1976).
  • Inherit a 10-year data-set (beginning 1931) of climatological records for the Red Hill Estate and continue the collection of these data for the Station (1941-1976).
  • Manage climatological records and prepare summaries of climatological records.
  • Encourage graduate students to conduct research at the Station (beginning 1955).
  • 1967-1976. Collections Manager for herbarium and invertebrate and vertebrate collections
  • Prepare species lists for mosses, vascular plants, spiders, and insects.
  • 1973-1974. Library Assistant
  • Organize a complete collection of Florida quadrangle maps (U.S. Geological Survey).
  • Add spine labels to all (6,000) bound volumes of periodicals.
  • 1973. Purchase 2,773 acres of pristine habitat adjacent to the western boundary of the Station
  • Donate 1,574 acres to the Station (July 2, 1973), and the remaining 1,249 acres in 1976.
  • 1976. Endow Archbold Biological Station through Archbold Expeditions.
  • Probably, Richard Archbold’s greatest contribution to science was that he founded (1941) and endowed (1976) Archbold Biological Station, and that he added substantially to its original land holdings of 1,058 acres (see map).

Archbold Biological Station Overview (1941-2007)

Station Research. The Station quickly became a place where staff and visiting scientists could conduct long-term ecological studies on the native plants and animals of central Florida in a preserve where natural ecological forces prevail. Under Richard Archbold’s leadership and support the scientific productivity of the Station increased over his lifetime and the growth continues in the present. As of 2006, 1,685 scientific journal articles and books have been published based on research conducted at Archbold Biological Station or by Staff scientists. The growth of the Station’s scientific productivity can be seen from the following summary: During the 1940s, the Station produced 2 scientific publications per year; 1950s - 5/yr; 1960s - 15/yr; 1970s - 25/yr; 1980s - 33/yr; and 1990s-2000s - 45/yr. (See the Station Bibliography Analysis for details.)  This growth reflects the growth of the Station’s Scientific Staff (now about 25 including 5 Principal Investigators) and of the numerous collaborating and visiting scientists. The Station also receives numerous grants and contracts for regional research from local, state, and federal agencies and from several NGO.

Several scientists conducted award-winning, career-long research programs at the Station.

  • Thomas Eisner (Cornell Univ., now retired), considered the father of “chemical ecology,” conducted much of his award-winning research at the Station. Awards include:
    • 1986. Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, The Procter Prize.
    • 1988. Deutsche Zoologische Gesellschaft, Karl Ritter von Frish Medal.
    • 1989. Harvard University, Centennial Medal.
    • 1991. International Society of Chemical Ecology, Silver Medal.
    • 1994. United States National Medal of Science.
  • James N. Layne (Archbold Biol. Sta., Research Director).
    • 1976. American Society of Mammalogists, first recipient of the C. Hart Merriam Award (for outstanding research contributions to the science of mammalogy).
    • 1993. American Society of Mammalogists, Honorary Member.
    • 1995. Florida Academy of Sciences, Medalist.
  • Eric S. Menges (Archbold Biol. Sta., Research Biologist).
    • 1995-2005. Invited speaker at international meetings in Europe (Austria, Sweden), Japan, and Australia.
  • Glen E. Woolfenden (1930-2007, Univ. South Florida) and John W. Fitzpatrick (Cornell Univ., Lab. of Ornithology) continue their long-term ecological and behavioral study of the Florida Scrub-Jay (begun in 1969), since 1972 with John W. Fitzpatrick, and since 1990 with Reed Bowman (Archbold Biol. Sta.). Woolfenden’s scrub-jay research has won him many awards for excellence, including:
    • 1984. University of South Florida, Distinguished Scholar.
    • 1985. American Ornithologists’ Union, the Brewster Award (the highest award for research given by the AOU) for the 1984 book “The Florida scrub jay: Demography of a cooperative-breeding bird,” by Woolfenden and Fitzpatrick.
    • 1988. University of South Florida, Distinguished Research Scholar.
    • 1994. Animal Behavior Society, Distinguished Animal Behaviorist.
    • 2001. Wilson Ornithological Society, Margaret Nice Award (for lifetime research accomplishment).

Station Environmental Monitoring. The Archbold Biological Station became an official National Weather Station in 1969. The Station’s climatological records now span 75 years. Richard Archbold also fostered the beginnings of other long-term environmental data-sets including the property’s fire history begun in 1967 by James N. Layne. The limnological monitoring of the Station’s Lake Annie(purchased in 1983) began in 1983. The Station also conducts monitoring of groundwater at many seasonal ponds and several shallow wells.

Station Education. Richard Archbold had a special affinity for students and he encouraged graduate students to conduct research at the Station. Since 1955, more than 142 graduate students from 30 schools in the United States, and one each from Australia, Czech Republic, Germany, and Scotland, have conducted their graduate-degree research at the Station. The Station offers excellent facilities and habitat access for about 15 visiting college/university field-biology classes annually . Begun in 1990, the Station’s formal environmental education program for K-12 students reaches 2,000-3,000 students annually.

Acknowledgments

I am grateful to several people for their help. Roger A. Morse obtained several important documents from the Archbold Expeditions Archives, Department of Mammalogy, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, during his research for his biography of Richard Archbold, and he donated copies of these documents to the archives at Archbold Biological Station. His wife, Mary Jane Morse, donated her late husband’s files for the Richard Archbold biography to the Station. Beverly Mazzeo contributed several important newspaper articles. Mike Mazzeo scanned photographs and processed digital images. Mary Page Hufty supplied important family history dates and places. Hilary M. Swain made helpful comments on a draft of this manuscript.

Sources

Published

  • Adkisson, C.S. 1996,1997. Aviation and Archbold Expeditions: Part 1-4. Archbold Happenings 2(11):15-16, 3(2):9-10, 3(3):8-9, 3(4):10-12.
  • Archbold Biological Station. Annual Reports, 1941-1990; Biennial Reports, 1991-2000.
  • Archbold, R. 1936. An ascent of Mt. Albert Edwards. American Alpine Journal 2: 449-454.
  • Archbold, R. 1941. Unknown New Guinea. National Geographic Magazine 79:315-344. pdf link
  • Archbold, R. and A.L. Rand. 1935. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 7. Summary of the 1933-1934 Papuan Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 68:527-579. link
  • Archbold, R., A.L. Rand, and L.J. Brass. 1942. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 41. Summary of the 1938-1939 New Guinea Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 79:197-288. link
  • Brass, L.J. and R.D. Hoogland. 1972. Archbold Expeditions. Pp. 25-28 in Ryan, P., ed., Encyclopedia of Papua and New Guinea, Volume 1. Melbourne University Press in association with the University of Papua and New Guinea, Carlton, Victoria.
  • Heinrich, B. 2007. The snoring bird. HarperCollins Publishers, New York. Page 99.
  • Marquis Who’s Who. 1974. Who’s Who in America, 38th edition, 1974-1975.
  • Morse, R.A. 2000. Richard Archbold and the Archbold Biological Station. Univ. Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
  • Rand, A.L. 1936. The distribution and habits of Madagascar birds. Bulletin of the American Museum of  Natural History 72:143-499. link
  • Rand, A.L., and L.J. Brass. 1940. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 29. Summary of the 1936-1937 New Guinea Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 78:341-380. link
  • Rand, A.L. 1941. Arizona expedition. Natural History 48:232-235.
  • Rand, A.L. 1977. Obituary: Richard Archbold. Auk 94:186-187. link
  • Tate, G.M. 1946. Guba was a flying boat. Collier’s Magazine, June 1, 1946, p. 56.
  • Zweifel, R.G. 2000. Partition of the Australopapuan microhylid frog genus Sphenophryne with descriptions of new species. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 253:1-130 link

Unpublished

  • Solsbury Hill Productions. 2006. Memories of Richard Archbold: Conversations with Frances Archbold Hufty, James N. Layne, and Bert G. Crawford III. A video tape.
  • Archbold, R. ca 1940. Autobiography. A draft manuscript.
  • Archives, Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida.
  • Archives, Archbold Expeditions, Department of Mammalogy, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York.

Compiler, Fred E. Lohrer, 1 June 2007, last revised 24 July 2008.